Monday, June 12, 2017


Town hall Wells Somerset

Once again, the Hilliard Society held its Annual Miniature Painting Exhibition in the Town Hall in the ancient cathedral City of Wells, Somerset.  About 300 exhibits were admired by visitors from all over the country.  The 2017 exhibition closed on 10th June, but can be seen online from
Purchases can be packed and shipped worldwide.

Miniature painter Jenny Brooks, HS, RMS started a new project called 'Mini Masters' to encourage young people to take up miniature painting and a selection of the young artists' work was showcased alongside the main exhibition for the first time this year.  If you have or know children who might be interested in learning about this ancient skill, enquiries can be made through the Hilliard Society website.  There are two sections 7 - 11 years and 12 - 16 years. 


A descendant of William Grimaldi through the female line, Antony has long wished to acquire one of his famous forebear’s miniatures.  Quite recently, he bought what he believed to be a rare enamel miniature from a dealer.  

Enamel by William Grimaldi
of Lord Altamont
©APC Halls 2017

Enamel with watercolour paint 
peeling off
©APC Halls 2017

Part Signature of William Grimaldi
©APC Halls 2017

When Antony sent us the images, we noted the damage of the peeling paint and could not believe it was an enamel miniature, believing it to be perhaps a poorly surviving watercolour or even a later imprint from more recent times.  We were quite wrong.  It was indeed one the very few surviving enamel miniatures painted by Grimaldi and with some clever and persistent detective work, Antony discovered the identity of the sitter; Lord Altamont. Antony's detailed research also revealed that the miniature is based on a portrait of Lord Altamont by Sir Joshua Reynolds, currently held in a private collection. William Grimaldi’s grandson, Alexander Beaufort Grimaldi, compiled a ‘Catalogue, Chronological and Descriptive, of Paintings, Drawings, & Engravings, By and After William Grimaldi’, a limited edition, now a rare book, but later copies may still be obtained, as the original is not protected by Copyright.  According to this catalogue, Grimaldi painted two enamel miniatures of Lord Altamont  (John Denis Browne 1756-1809) in 1787, numbers 4 and 5, originally copied from a watercolour on ivory version of the sitter.  One of the enamels, the artist kept for himself, which in 1854 was possessed by his son, Stacey.  William Grimaldi personally listed the enamel miniatures he painted and the accompanying notes he wrote about their production makes very interesting and astonishing reading.  For those who understand the challenges of painting an enamel miniature, it is apparent that it is an extraordinarily difficult and laborious task and not one that any artist – even a talented miniature painter – could undertake without acquiring the specialist skills to perfect the colours and repeatedly fire the different colours in a kiln.  The difficulties Grimaldi faced are documented in detail.  Of the total of 38 enamel miniatures painted during his career, many were damaged during the complicated process…  no. 12 ‘This picture cracked but was recovered’, no. 13. ‘This plate gave me infinite trouble and labour, by cracking in the fire, then being mended, and at last lost.  Never can be recovered.  The labour or time in painting and mending took me 20 days’, no. 21 ‘This picture cracked and afterwards some part broke by a fall. But I recovered it quite perfect.  N.B. The above was the cause of it going 5 times in the fire more than it otherwise would..’ no. 34 ‘Cracked’, no. 35 ‘Spoilt in firing’, no. 36 ‘spoilt in firing’.

The clue to what happened to Antony’s enamel miniature is explained in Grimaldi’s notes on no. 22. ‘This plate cracked and was mended and touched with watercolour’  and no. 30. ‘This enamel was afterwards touched or mended with watercolours, and went to Ireland, and after two years returned much damaged…’  And so we conclude that Grimaldi used watercolour on a number of his enamel miniatures in order to recover them after firing accidents. In Antony’s miniature, we can see that the watercolour would not adhere properly, hence the peeling of the paint around the sitter’s head. Interestingly, Grimaldi bought the prepared plates that he painted on from either a Mr. Griffiths or a Mr. Long and he paid for the firings as he probably did not have the skills for this process, or it was not worthwhile for him to have his own kiln.  The fact that any of Grimaldi’s 38 attempted enamel miniatures survive today is remarkable and is testament to their rarity.

House of Grimaldi

Principality of Monaco

Until very recently when the laws of succession were changed, the title of Prince of Monaco and heir to the throne of Monaco could only devolve through the male line.  In 1918, Prince Louis, the heir apparent, was unmarried and childless and the next in line to the throne was a cousin, a German national.  Given the animosity between France and Germany because of the First World War, it was considered unacceptable for the cousin to become heir to the Principality and a solution was sought.  Prince Louis therefore legally adopted a female called Charlotte, apparently his illegitimate child and she was named heir to the throne.  She became a Duchess and on her marriage her husband changed his name to Grimaldi and became Prince of Monaco.  Charlotte later divorced her husband and named her son as heir.  Her son, Rainier, went on to succeed to the title and to marry the actress, Grace Kelly. 

The Pink Palace

William Grimaldi’s son, Stacey, was a lawyer and a specialist in peerage cases.  In 1834 he established and recorded the pedigree of his branch of the Grimaldi family at the College of Arms in London.  This research led the way for a claim by a descendant in 1922, which was reported in the newspapers. Unfortunately, the descendant, Marquis George Frederick Grimaldi, was baffled by how he should proceed with his claim, and nothing came of it.


William Grimaldi was born in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch, London on 26th August 1751.  His father, Alexander (1714-1800), was the son of Alessandro Maria Grimaldi (1659-1732), and heir to the Genoese family of Grimaldi, being the 7th Marquess. His mother was Esther Barton (1721-1774) and his father’s second wife

In 1764, when William was 13, he was apprenticed for seven years to his uncle, Thomas Worlidge, a successful artist, to study drawing and painting. Worlidge had himself received instruction from William’s grandfather, Alessandro, who was also an artist, and had married Alessandro’s daughter, Arabella, as his first wife.  About two years after William had left home to live with his uncle at Great Queen Street, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, Worlidge died in 1766 leaving the young Grimaldi to reside with his aunt, Worlidge’s widow and his third wife, for the remainder of his apprenticeship. William Grimaldi continued to study portrait painting and to master watercolour, portrait miniatures, enamelling and oil painting.  The Worlidge family again became connected to the Grimaldis when Thomas Worlidge Junior, the only surviving son of Worlidge Senior’s third marriage, married William Grimaldi’s sister, Phoebe c. 1785.

Unknown Lady  By William Grimaldi
Signed and dated 1805
Provenance: by family descent
Mary Ann Grimaldi to
Louisa Beaufont Grimaldi (1834-1914 ) to
Esther Grimaldi (born 1884 in Ealing)
©Arturi Phillips. 2016

In 1777, William accompanied his father to Paris and remained for the following six years.  He gained many commissions from the city’s High Society, having been given introductions to the King’s Almoner through his friendship with Abbe Clovet.  Reputedly, his polished manners, amiable disposition and cheerfulness won him many clients.  He also received offers to advance his position on condition that he embrace the Roman Catholic religion, which he declined.  William’s father, Alexander, had already relinquished his Catholicism.

On 13th November 1783, Grimaldi married Miss Frances Barker in England and returned to Paris with his bride, where they set up home until the following year.  On returning to England William and his wife had four children, the youngest, Henry, died aged 15. 

A Naval Officer by William Grimaldi
©V&A Images. 2016

Although Grimaldi  exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1786 and continued to do so until 1824, he did not enrol as a student at the Academy Schools. He gained many introductions through his friendship with the first President of the Academy, Joshua Reynolds, and quickly established himself in Royal circles, with the appointment of Miniature Painter to the Duke of York in 1790 and the Duchess of York in 1791, followed by the appointment of Enamel Painter Extraordinary to the Prince of Wales (later George IV) in 1804.  There are still twelve miniatures by Grimaldi in the Royal Collection today, most of them commissioned by George, Prince of Wales.

 William Grimaldi’s first exhibits at the Royal Academy were signed ‘De Grimaldi’ or Di Grimaldi’.  By 1790 he had dropped the prefix and his signature was often found on the front lower edge just as ‘Grimaldi’.  A further variation was the use of the title ‘AR’ (Academie Royale, the French Royal Academy) after his name, W. Grimaldi AR, although he was never elected as such.

The Rev. Dr. Foster by William Grimaldi
©V&A Images. 2016

In 1800 William’s father, Alexander,7th Marquess of Grimaldi, died and William became the 8th Marquess.  He continued his work as an artist throughout his life, painting miniatures on ivory and on enamel, watercolour portraits, pencil and ink drawings. His grandson, Alexander Beaufort Grimaldi, compiled a catalogue of William Grimaldi’s work in 1873 (A Catalogue, chronological and descriptive of Paintings, Drawings & Engravings by and after William Grimaldi) which detailed over 440 miniatures on ivory, 38 enamel miniatures and many watercolour and pencil drawings.  However, posthumous catalogues are not always completely accurate and it is thought that the total number of miniatures on ivory that he painted during his long career was around 1000. 

 An Unknown Lady by William Grimaldi
©V&A Images. 2016

In his later years, Grimaldi’s temperament was said to have become more variable. Apparently, he was prone to be highly sentimental in his relationships with periods of excitable behaviour and episodes of melancholy and depression.  At times he was very lavish with his expenditure.  After his wife, Frances, died in 1813 aged 63, he kept working but never remarried.  According to family stories, he did, however, form an attachment to Elizabeth Dawe, a very pretty girl who was described as his niece and who lived with him after he became a widower.  She was reputed to be a talented musician  and was able to clear away his depression with her music.  He in turn taught her miniature painting.

Captain Edwin Stacey by William Grimaldi

©Philip Mould Galleries 2017

William Grimaldi died on 27th May 1830 aged 78 and was buried in Bunhill Fields Cemetery on 3rd June.  The cemetery is at 38 City Road and although technically in Islington, is owned and managed by the City of London.  His son, Stacey, inherited the title and became 9th Marquess Grimaldi.

George Washington by William Grimaldi
Signed and dated 1800
©V&A Images. 2016

William Grimaldi worked from the following London addresses, according to entries in the Royal Academy collated by Algernon Graves:

1786 12 Parliament Street
1787  7 King Street, St. James’s
1795  2 Albemarle Street, St. James’s
1812  16 Hunter Street North, Brunswick Square
1819  1 Cophall Court, Throgmorton Street
1824  76 Upper Ebury Street, Chelsea

We are grateful to Antony Paul Colton Halls, a descendant of the Grimaldi family and an artist himself, for sharing previously unknown details about William Grimaldi, after three decades of interest and research.  Antony has his own personal fascinating story to tell (please see below) about an acquired enamel miniature and his belief that the wrong branch of the family sit on the Grimaldi throne.